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"A Study of Upanishads"



 

ISAVASYOPANISHAD:

 

Santi Mantra

 

That is full; this is full. From the full the full proceeds. Taking the full from the full, the full alone remains. That Absolute is full. This created being is also full. Brahman is infinitude and is therefore full. That which proceeds from the full or the infinite must be either real or unreal. If it is real, it must also be full, because a part cannot be ever-enduring, and that which is not always enduring is not real. If it is unreal, nothing proceeds at all. This means to say that either infinity is the product of infinity or nothing proceeds from infinity. Infinity cannot proceed from infinity, because, thereby, there would be two infinities. Hence, the proceeding of infinity from infinity does not change infinity, because infinity alone remains even after that. The drift of the statement is that infinity is unchanging and this mantra is a figurative way of saying that nothing proceeds from infinity. Even the idea of something proceeding from infinity is based on its essential character of infinity. That which is produced, namely, Hiranyagarbha, or the universe, must be infinite. Otherwise there should be something outside Hiranyagarbha, or the universe. The universe includes space, also, and beyond space there is nothing. Therefore, the universe is infinite. Even the individual that is created is essentially infinite. Taking infinity from infinity is only an idea and not a possibility. Therefore, the infinite alone exists without change in past, present and future. Om Santih, Santih, Santih - May the three tapas (afflictions) cease, and may there be peace.

 

Note:
The three tapas are: Subjective trouble, objective trouble and heavenly trouble.
Subjective trouble: Hunger, thirst, grief, delusion, ignorance, disease and death.
Objective trouble: Ferocious animals, poisonous creatures and wicked human beings.
Heavenly trouble: Thunderbolt, storms, floods, heat, cold, earthquake, etc.

 

Introductory-


The nature of the Self is not in any way connected with the processes or the results of action that takes the Self to be limited, impure and diverse. Knowledge pertains to the essential nature of the Self. Knowledge neither creates nor modifies nor obtains nor purifies the Self, because the relationship between knowledge and the Self is not one of doer and doing. All the Upanishads exhaust themselves in ascertaining the fundamental characteristics of the Self. The mantras of the Isavasyopanishad negate the conception which the Mimamsakas have of the Self, and assert that the true Self is secondless, non-doer, non-enjoyer, pure and ever untainted by sin.

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